Introduction to Maps
- What is a map: aerial view, scale, features, and symbols, etc..
- Scales and effect on map detail
- Symbols on maps including contours – what they represent on the ground
- Suitability/reliability of OS and other production walking maps
Navigation using map-only techniques:
- Conventional symbols and what they represent
- Map-setting and self-location process, Direction estimation
- Contour features: flat/steep ground, spur, valley, top, saddle, ridge, re-entrant, slope change, arêtes, corries
- Distance estimation – on both map and ground. Estimation by eye, feel, and experience.
- Simple navigation technique – following handrail features, the easy line features to contour line features – spurs/ridges, etc.
- 1:50000 or 1:25000 maps most applicable to the area. Clearly identifiable points, both on the map and ground for navigation legs.
- Climatic: wind, rain, mist, heat, cold, etc.
- Topographic: precipice, vegetation, loose rock, etc.
- Human: fitness, attitude, nutrition, etc.
- Essential gear and various options.
- Extra equipment needed for hillwalking in winter and being a group leader.
Introduction to the Mountain Environment
- Special and fragile habitats
- Flora & fauna, geology, history, archaeology, heritage, place names etc.
- Different uses of upland areas
- Access and land ownership, legal rights of access?
- The relationship between hillwalkers and landowners
- The impact of our actions on other people and on the natural environment (e.g. path erosion, where we park, dogs on the hills)